How To Reduce Corruption
The procurement of goods or services is a government activity that is considered the most vulnerable to corruption, and this happens everywhere in the world. The biggest corruption scandal is the Petrobras or commonly known as Operation Car Wash. The case shook Brazil because it involves many politicians and business including the biggest construction company, Odebrecht. Other engineering and construction companies involved, Camargo Correa choose to change direction after hallack, the chairman of the company for ten years, decided to step down after the case has been known to the public.
Corruption in this area is the second most cases handled after the bribery case. Corruption that occurred massively was responded to with a criminal law approach that was repressive and action-oriented. On the one hand, this is good because it provides shock therapy, so that makes people afraid to commit corruption. The proof is that planning for corruption is no longer carried out in a banal manner, but is carried out clandestinely even using various passwords or using other languages as codes. But on the other hand, this makes law enforcement counter-productive, because energy is focused more on enforcement and not prevention contained in the system. A repressive approach that is overuse raises its concerns for the State apparatus to take action and or innovation. In the context of good and service procurement, this repressive approach makes the state apparatus afraid to be involved in procurement activities, so they try to make themselves ineligible to be elected as parties involved in procurement by frustrating themselves in the national test.
Corrupt behavior (abuse) can occur because of four things. First, encouragement from employees to misuse money and institutional assets. Second, circumstances that enable employees to abuse. Third, employee mindset and ethics that enable employees to abuse. And last is the capacity of employees to make their crimes undetectable by the system. Related to the above, corruption can be prevented in five ways. First, complicating efforts to commit corruption, reduce the causes that tolerate or allow corruption, increases the risk of being detected, reducing incentives for corruption, and last is to reduce provocation for corruption.